Citation: Salt and Paper Battery May One Day Replace Lithium Batteries (2009, September 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-09-salt-paper-battery-day-lithium.html A new thin-film battery has electrodes made of polymer-coated paper and an electrolyte made of salt-soaked paper. A laboratory prototype shows the cell pressed between glass slides and packaged in an aluminum pouch. Credit: Maria Stromme, Uppsala University At Uppsala University in Sweden, researchers have developed a flexible battery made of two inexpensive materials: cellulose and salt. The cellulose is derived from a polluting algae found in seas and lakes. The algae’s walls contain cellulose that has a different nanostructure, which gives it 100 times the surface area. The battery is made by coating the paper, made from this cellulose, with a conducting polymer and inserting a salt-solution-soaked filter paper between the paper electrodes. Chlorine ions travel from the batteries positive terminal to the negative terminal while current is produced in the external circuit by the flow of electrons. The battery can be recharged in tens of seconds because the ions flow through the thin electrode quickly. In comparison to a lithium battery that would take 20 minutes to recharge. The salt and paper battery is still in the early stages of development as compared to other thin-film technologies. For a battery to be cost effective you need to able to obtain the material at relatively low cost and have a good manufacture process in place.The battery could be produced commercially in about three years and made available to distributors.Via: RSC and Technology Review© 2009 PhysOrg.com Nanoball Batteries Could Charge Electric Cars in 5 Minutes (PhysOrg.com) — Salt and paper battery can be used in many low-power devices, such as medical implants, RFID tags, wireless sensors and smart cards. This battery uses a thin-film which makes it an attractive feature for many portable devices that draws a low current. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: www.bombardier.com/en/corporat … cID=0901260d80299a7dprimove.bombardier.com/ © 2013 Phys.org Explore further Plans call for two Swiss built busses (Carrosserie HESS AG) to be retrofitted with the PRIMOVE Technology—streets will be dug up at bus stops to embed the other half of the technology beneath the road bed. Once installed, an initial test run of the system will commence to ensure all of the parts are working correctly. Once that is completed, the two busses will run their normal bus routes (with passengers) for 12 months, during which time researchers from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology will be analyzing data from the system to monitor, tweak and build a knowledge base of information to be used in building future test sites to optimize the system overall.An inductive charging system is wireless; current is passed through the air—in this case from beneath the roadbed to components installed in the undercarriage of a bus. For such a charging system to work as part of a bus line, the right size batteries must be used. Ideally, small batters can be employed as they will be given frequent charges—this allows for increased efficiency due to a lighter battery load. The batteries must be just large enough to ensure a bus can complete its route each day without ever having to stop for just recharging purposes. In addition to providing a city with zero emissions (at the point of use), electric busses also reduce noise pollution. As part of testing the system, researchers will also be speaking directly with passengers to get their ideas on how well the busses work within the system.The German government has stated its intent to pursue electric technology for busses in the country and has backed up that pledge by offering funds to various projects. For this test, the country’s Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development will be footing the bill to the tune of €3.3 million (US$4.35 million). Citation: German city to test viability of inductive charging system on two real bus lines (2013, February 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-german-city-viability-inductive-real.html (Phys.org)—Canadian company Bombardier, Inc’s rail division based in Berlin Germany, has announced the approval of a test run of an all electric bus recharging system in the city of Mannheim. The power systems are based on the company’s PRIMOVE Technology, whereby vehicles are charged inductively while pausing to load and unload passengers. The primary purpose of the test-run is to determine whether such a system is viable in a real-world environment. Arctic Whisper – First fast-charging hybrid electric bus debuts in Sweden This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—When a giant cloud of molecular gas condenses, star clusters are born. It may sound simple but the formation of star clusters is a very complex process, not yet completely understood by scientists. By peering into this process we could get valuable information on the evolution of galaxies and improve our knowledge about large cosmic structures in the universe. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. “Star clusters are often considered as building blocks of galaxies. Understanding how these objects form and evolve is vital to our comprehension of the structure, formation and evolution of galaxies,” Denilso Camargo of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Colégio Militar de Porto Alegre, Brazil, told Phys.org.Camargo and his colleagues Eduardo Bica and Charles Bonatto, also from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, have recently discovered a multitude of star clusters using NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In a paper published online on Nov. 9 on ArXiv, they announced the finding of 652 star clusters, stellar groups and candidates in the Milky Way galaxy.The researchers targeted 862 objects for observations by WISE. They were looking for dust emission nebulae followed by a search for stellar overdensities within them. What they found is a variety of interesting objects classified as open clusters (OCs), open cluster candidates (OCCs), embedded clusters (ECs), embedded cluster candidates (ECCs), and embedded stellar groups (EGrs).There are two main groups of star clusters: OCs and globular clusters (GCs). OCs are generally young objects, up to a few tens of millions of years old. They are much less densely populated and much less tightly gravitationally bound than GCs. In contrast to OCs, globular clusters are tight groups of very old stars, distributed roughly spherically in the galactic halo, around the galactic center. They have highly elliptical orbits around the galactic center, while OCs are usually located in the galactic plane, almost always within spiral arms.ECs are also intriguing and peculiar stellar clusters. They are partially or fully encased in interstellar dust or gas. They consist of extremely young, recently formed or forming stars. For scientists, they are important laboratories for the study of star formation and early stellar evolution.Camargo noted that the diversity of star clusters comes in handy when dealing with questions still baffling astronomers.”The open cluster system has been used to analyze the structure, dynamics, composition and evolution of the Milky Way’s disk. Old open clusters are excellent probes of disk formation and early evolution. Young open clusters have been used as tracers of the spiral pattern in galactic disks,” Camargo said.He added that his team recently used embedded clusters to trace the spiral structure of our Galaxy. The results favor a four-armed spiral pattern for the Milky Way.Studying star clusters is a fundamental task for researchers when it comes to unlock the secrets of star formation process, as most stars, if not all, form in star clusters. Moreover, the chemical evolution of the universe is directly related to stellar evolution in the sense that metals currently observed are synthesized in the interior of the stars, which are born within star clusters.The research team led by Camargo has a stunning record of 1098 star clusters found so far. The newest list is a follow-up of the 446 previous discoveries detailed in three other papers. More information: Characterizing star cluster formation with WISE: 652 newly found star clusters and candidates, arXiv:1511.01978 [astro-ph.GA] arxiv.org/abs/1511.01978AbstractWe report the discovery of 652 star clusters, stellar groups and candidates in the Milky Way with WISE. Most of the objects are projected close to Galactic Plane and are embedded clusters. The present sample complements a similar study (Paper I) which provided 437 star clusters and alike. We find evidence that star formation processes span a wide range of sizes, from populous dense clusters to small compact embedded ones, sparse stellar groups or in relative isolation. The present list indicates multiple stellar generations during the embedded phase, with giant molecular clouds collapsing into several clumps composing an embedded cluster aggregate. We investigate the field star decontaminated Colour Magnitude Diagrams and Radial Density Profiles of 9 cluster candidates in the list, and derive their parameters, confirming them as embedded clusters. More evidence that the Milky Way has four spiral arms Citation: Peering into building blocks of galaxies (2015, November 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-peering-blocks-galaxies.html Journal information: arXiv Explore further An image of Camargo 791, one of the newly found embedded clusters. Credit: Camargo et al. © 2015 Phys.org
E-Liquids are usually comprised of glycerin and propylene glycol along with a flavor additive. Glycerin, when heated, predominantly forms acrolein and formaldehyde, while propylene glycol predominantly forms acetone and acetaldehyde. Certain flavor additives have shown enhanced aldehyde formation, as well. Citation: Quantitative study of aldehyde content in electronic cigarettes (2017, April 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-04-quantitative-aldehyde-content-electronic-cigarettes.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain Ogunwale et al. used a microreactor-capture approach that they had previously developed to obtain an accurate look at aldehyde levels in e-cigarette vapor. This method employs a 4-(2-aminooxyethyl)-morpholin-4-ium chloride (AMAH) coating on a silicon base. Aldehydes selectively react with AMAH to form an oxime, which is more stable and easier to study than an aldehyde.Aerosols were generated using a cigarette-smoking robot and were collected in Tedlar bags. The robot allowed for control over puff duration, puff volume, and puff frequency. The aerosols flowed through the microreactors from the bags using an evacuation process and then reacted with AMAH. The AMAH oxime compound was neutralized to form an AMA adduct that was then studied using gas chromatography.Both the first generation and next generation e-cigarettes produced some amount of acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde, but acealdehyde and formaldehyde were in higher concentrations than acrolein. All of the aldehydes were present in lower concentrations than what is found in cigarette smoke using Health Canada Intense Puffing Regime. Notably, the next-generation e-cigarettes, which have a tank-type atomizer, produced higher levels of aldehydes and acetone. The authors attribute this to the higher battery output.To understand the puffing topology, Ogunwale et al., used 60-mL syringes to manually vary puff duration and volume to more accurately replicate real-life usage. Puffing duration and the particular flavor contributed to the formation of reactive aldehydes, although these factors played a smaller role than battery output in the amount of aldehydes present. If puffing duration was around 4.0 seconds/puff, more aldehydes were present compared to shorter or longer puffing. The average user puffs for 3.5 to 4.3 seconds.Finally, Ogunwale et al. used 1H NMR to detect and quantify the presence of hemiacetals formed from aldehydes. They found that hemiacetals did not form in any of the first-generation e-cigarettes flavors, and they did not form in three of the next-generation flavors tested. Only one flavor that was tested formed hemiacetals within a battery output that was within the range of normal use. This study provides valuable information on the safety of e-cigarettes. In general, the higher the battery output, the higher the aldehyde levels in the vapor. Certain aldehydes, such as acrolein, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde, have been shown to contribute to CVD even in low levels. All of the e-cigarettes tested in this study had some amount of these aldehydes present. Hazardous chemicals discovered in flavored e-cigarette vapor More information: Mumiye A. Ogunwale et al. Aldehyde Detection in Electronic Cigarette Aerosols, ACS Omega (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.6b00489AbstractAcetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde are the principal toxic aldehydes present in cigarette smoke and contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease and noncancerous pulmonary disease. The rapid growth of the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has raised concerns over emissions of these harmful aldehydes. This work determines emissions of these aldehydes in both free and bound (aldehyde–hemiacetal) forms and other carbonyls from the use of e-cigarettes. A novel silicon microreactor with a coating phase of 4-(2-aminooxyethyl)-morpholin-4-ium chloride (AMAH) was used to trap carbonyl compounds in the aerosols of e-cigarettes via oximation reactions. AMAH–aldehyde adducts were measured using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to analyze hemiacetals in the aerosols. These aldehydes were detected in the aerosols of all e-cigarettes. Newer-generation e-cigarette devices generated more aldehydes than the first-generation e-cigarettes because of higher battery power output. Formaldehyde–hemiacetal was detected in the aerosols generated from some e-liquids using the newer e-cigarette devices at a battery power output of 11.7 W and above. The emission of these aldehydes from all e-cigarettes, especially higher levels of aldehydes from the newer-generation e-cigarette devices, indicates the risk of using e-cigarettes. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: ACS (Phys.org)—Electronic cigarettes have had their share of both detractors and advocates since they hit the market in 2004. Many people believe that they are healthier than cigarettes, but others say that the effects of e-cigarette vapors are largely unknown. Medical organizations have generally taken a cautious approach and do not specifically recommend e-cigarettes for stopping smoking or as a healthier alternative to smoking. © 2017 Phys.org One area of concern is the amount of aldehydes present in e-cigarette smoke. These aldehydes are present in tobacco cigarettes in larger quantities than in e-cigarettes, but the levels in e-cigarettes are still not known. Additionally, the amount that is considered dangerous for cardio vascular disease (CVD) is a topic of debate. Some studies have shown that even small amounts of certain aldehydes can lead to progression of CVD.Researchers from the University of Louisville’s Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center conducted quantitative analyses of both older (first generation) and newer-model e-cigarette cartridges using a variety of flavors. They used a new method for trapping reactive carbonyls that are then subsequently stabilized using an oximation reaction. They found that newer devices produced more harmful aldehydes than first generation e-cigarettes. Their work appears in ACS Omega.E-cigarettes cartridges contain battery-powered coils that serve to heat and vaporize e-Liquid. Based on this study, the amount of reactive aldehydes in e-cigarette vapor are largely due to the cartridge’s battery power. The higher the battery power, the higher the aldehyde levels. While e-cigarette aerosols contain aldehydes that are known to contribute to CVD, the exact levels have not been definitively determined largely because of the difficulties associated with trapping and studying reactive aldehydes. New models, or “next-generation,” e-cigarettes have a higher battery power than older ones. Furthermore, older models have a fixed battery output (4.6 W) while the next-generation ones have variable output (9.1 W, 11.7 W, 14.7 W, 16.6 W). The authors wanted to look at this next-generation of e-cigarettes to quantitatively determine aldehyde levels as well as determine if e-Liquid flavor makes a difference in aldehyde formation. In order to do this, they took into account the formation of hemiacetals from aldehydes, something that prior studies did not address.The aldehydes that are of greatest concern are acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde. Acrolein, in particular, has been shown to advance CVD, even when a person is exposed to low levels. Formaldehyde has also been associated with CVD in low concentrations. Explore further
© 2018 Phys.org Explore further The Shigir Idol was discovered in an ancient peat bog by miners in Russia back in 1890. Early analysis showed that it was made entirely of larch wood and was constructed from several chunks. It remained preserved for thousands of years because of antimicrobial properties found in the peat. The idol was also covered extensively with markings, some of which depicted tiny human faces. To this day, no one knows what most of the markings depict. It was also noted that some of the original pieces of the idol had been lost—it is believed that it originally stood approximately five meters tall. In 1997, a team in Russia used radiocarbon dating to estimate the age of the icon and found it to be approximately 9,500 years old.Experts have studied the carvings on the idol over the years, and many have suggested they likely represent a form of art, possibly linked with spiritual or religious activities.Recently, the team in Germany expressed interest it taking a closer look at the idol, which is normally housed in the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum, in Russia. Arrangements were made for the idol to be shipped to Germany, where it was studied, along with other original material found in the peat bog. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, the team found the true age of the idol to be approximately 11,500 years old, placing its creation at around the time of the end of the Ice Age. That age also makes it the oldest known wood monumental sculpture ever found and more than twice the age of the Egyptian pyramids. The researchers report that they also found another face carved into the wood, bringing the total to eight. Their findings suggest that researchers looking to better understand very early human behavior perhaps need to widen their search beyond the Fertile Crescent. Citation: Wooden Shigir idol found to be over twice as old as Egyptian pyramids (2018, April 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-wooden-shigir-idol-egyptian-pyramids.html Credit: Antiquity (2018). DOI: 10.15184/aqy.2018.48 Journal information: Antiquity More information: Mikhail Zhilin et al. Early art in the Urals: new research on the wooden sculpture from Shigir, Antiquity (2018). DOI: 10.15184/aqy.2018.48AbstractThe carved wooden object uncovered from the Shigir peat bog in the Sverdlovsk region towards the end of the nineteenth century remains one of the oldest, known examples of monumental anthropomorphic sculpture from anywhere in the world. Recent application of new analytical techniques has led to the discovery of new imagery on its surface, and has pushed the date of the piece back to the earliest Holocene. The results of these recent analyses are placed here in the context of local and extra-local traditions of comparable prehistoric art. This discussion highlights the unique nature of the find and its significance for appreciating the complex symbolic world of Early Holocene hunter-gatherers. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Rejection from ‘American Idol’ provides insights into perseverance A team of researchers in Germany has found evidence suggesting that the famous wooden Shirgir Idol is actually 11,500 years old. The team has documented their efforts and findings in a paper published on the Cambridge University Press site Antiquity. Credit: Public Domain
‘When robert Vadra said ‘We are mango people in a banana republic’, he made news and while we deliberated over it, we made humour,’ said Sundeep Sharma.The 32-year-old organised an open mic nite called A Comedy Open Mic for Mango People last weekend in the Capital to provide a platform to new talent and give comedy regulars a place to try out new material.’The first day of organising an open mic was a funny day in itself. The venue where we had decided to perform first had some problem and the venue had to be cancelled. First I thought that the name Banana Republic (meaning a failed state) is playing up to its reputation and is not auspicious, then the idea the show must go on took over me,’ Sundeep narrated on a lighter note. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The show featured both amateurs and professional comedians like Rajneesh Kapoor, Amit Tandon, Zakir Khan, Joke Singh Nishant Comedian, Moneesh Chakravarty (who made his debut), Manu Sharma, Vasu Ritu Primlani, Appurv Gupta and Nitin Gupta (Rivaldo) of the popular Delhi circuit.As and when the stage was taken over by the performers, the crowd went berserk with laughter. Be it Zakir Khan’s introspection over how some girls he knew transformed into pretty chicks later — thereby completing a metamorphosis — must have left Franz Kafka in splits. Similarly, Tandon cracked a few punches on married men and their witty musings after marriage. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixManu’s comical timing on the other hand was bang on with his playful antics based on the name of the venue and how he has to face the brunt of sharing his name with a killer in real life. Sundeep too displayed his comical skills by giving a five second discount time to understand all intelligent jokes.Vasu shared her plight of being a fairer sex in the male dominated society on a lighter note, as Nishant wished hard to buy that car which would ensure one can drive from Gurgaon to Connaught Place in just 15 minutes — as claimed by a random property dealer.Rajneesh Kapoor, a veteran in the comedy circuit, tickled the funny bone with his experience of asking for directions in the Capital, where a cow is a pertinent milestone.Similarly Rivaldo gave some tips on how to deal with hair loss and how display pictures on Facebook are in sync with your respective boyfriends and girlfriends. For all the lovers of comedy in the Capital, Sharma will be back again with his next in December.
The third edition of the Indian Artists Paint Russia art camp brought together a group of artists here who painted images of the country solely based on their imagination.Held for the first time in July 2011, the annual Art Camp has been gaining popularity among artists in the Indian capital, with the 2013 edition breaking all records with the participation of 17 artists. Indian Artists Paint Russia is being held at the Russian Centre of Science and Culture (RCSC), which is jointly organising the event with the Forum of Indian Photographers and Artists (FIPA). This year’s main theme is city life, with the artists being asked to focus on A Day in Moscow. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting”This year, we decided to split the display: the main part includes this year’s works, but next to them, you can see the paintings by the participants in previous Art Camps and those created by our guests of honour, including (Russian artist) Maxim Pridanov,’ said Anastasia Khokhlova , head of the RCSC cultural department.The camp is the second workshop in the series for Padmini Mehta and Aakshat Sinha, the latter having been granted the honorary status of its curator. He is the only participant to have been to Russia. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix’Russia is an unfailing source of inspiration,’ Sinha said. ‘If they asked me to paint my most overwhelming impression of Russia, I would definitely paint Tsvetnoy Bulvar, where, between two busy roads, there’s a park with benches and very beautiful people sitting on them.’ This year, Sinha painted the fans of FC Spartak Moscow against the background of the Red Square. ‘Each city must have football fans,’ Sinha explained.For Mehta, Russia is a vibrant country. ‘People are very sweet, cooperative. That I really like.’ In Mehta’s painting, Russian girls enjoy a circle dance on snow-covered mountain peaks next to a pianist playing Tchaikovsky. The background features Victory Day fireworks. Sugandha Menda learnt about the workshop from her father. ‘My dad introduced me to the Art Camp. He was part of it much earlier, two years ago,’ she said, admitting that the hardest thing for her was to choose something special about Russia to paint.’But I asked myself: I have never been to Russia, so what shall I do? My father advised me to look through all the photos on the internet about the history of Russia, whatever I could find. Then we were given a few books and started painting. By that time, I realised that I had the feeling that Russia was famous for snow and its winter. Many people also told me that winter in Russia was amazing. And the architecture is something magnificent.’
National Museum Institute took a major stride in realising an independent campus for the 25-year-old educational centre when Union Minister of State for Culture and Tourism, Mahesh Sharma laid the foundation stone of the institute at a three-acre plot in Noida on January 31.The National Museum Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Museology (NMI) will get a five-storeyed complex in its new premises at Sector 62 in 30 months with an estimated expenditure of Rs 90 crore, thus set to become a one-of-its-kind national resource centre for post-graduate and doctoral studies in art and heritage. “The institute will be a milestone in the future history of Noida and also for the country,” the minister said after unveiling the plaque at the function.Sharma noted that the eco-friendly institute with hostel facilities would generate more jobs and invigorate heritage upkeep in India. The 1989-founded NMI currently functions at National Museum premises in Delhi. Vasudevan said, “The institute will provide five post-graduate courses on Art history, Conservation and Museology. There will also be short-term courses for imparting of certain skills associated with the field,” he added.
Kolkata: The last date of admission has been extended in some Calcutta University-affiliated colleges to fill up the vacant seats, West Bengal Education Minister Partha Chatterjee said today. Talking to media persons, Chatterjee said the deadline was extended from July 10 to August 20 to accommodate as many students as possible in these colleges. “Wherever there are vacant seats, be it in pass or degree courses, the admission process will continue in till August 20,” he said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life To a question about the number of seats lying vacant in the CU-affiliated colleges in the city and its neighbourhood, the minister said, “I won’t comment on figures, just based on media reports. But there are enough seats for students. Hence, we took the decision to extend the admission deadline,” he said. In the past, too, Chatterjee had said students should not crowd a few educational institutions for admission. Asked about his response to the reintroduction of admission tests in Jadavpur University, Chatterjee said, “It (JU) is an autonomous institution. The government won’t interfere in its functioning.” The JU had recently witnessed a hunger strike by students in protest against the decision of the authorities to scrap admission test in six subjects. The university, after holding its ground for almost a week, buckled under the pressure of students and reintroduced entrance tests. The entrance tests in the six arts subjects will be conducted in the last week of July.